As a teacher, I learned the need to emphasize that creativity does not equal thoughtless action; indeed, it takes much more complex and active thinking skills than those demanded by a traditional academic educational system.
I am excited to integrate recent multimedia technologies, such as blogging, digital photography & film, animation, and web design into these core creative thinking modules. I hope to make the online lessons as interactive and “hands-on” modules to complement in-class activities.
Which are the elements or characteristics that describe optimal language learning activities and environments?
Joy Egbert (2005, CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL classrooms, TESOL) identifies the following conditions for classroom language learning:
Any language lesson should support conditions for optimal classroom language learning environments regardless of the tools used. These conditions based on research from a variety of literatures, have been characterized in different ways, but a general list (Egbert & Hanson-Smith, 1999) includes the following eight items:
Learners have opportunities to interact socially and negotiate meaning.
Learners interact in the target language with an authentic audience.
Learners are involved in authentic tasks.
Learners are exposed to and encouraged to produce varied and creative language.
Learners have enough time and feedback.
Learners are guided to attend mindfully to the learning process.
Learners work in an atmosphere with an ideal stress/anxiety level.
Learner autonomy is supported.
Now let’s compare these optimal environmental conditions with Chapelle (1998) hypotheses, derived from the Interactionist Theory, for developing multimedia CALL:
The linguistic characteristics of the target language input need to be made salient.
Learners should receive help in comprehending semantic and syntactic aspects of linguistic input.
Learners need to have opportunities to produce target language output.
Learners need to notice errors in their own output.
Learners need to correct their linguistic output.
Learners need to engage in target language interaction whose structure can be modified for negotiation of meaning.
Learners should engage in L2 tasks designed to maximize opportunities for good interaction.
It seems that the focus on linguistic form (hypotheses 1 and 2) and learners error noticing and correction (hypotheses 4 and 5) are not present in Egbert’s conditions (although “learners having feedback” is somehow related to “error noticing”), perhaps because these refer to environmental conditions and Chapelles’s hypotheses refer to materials development. Another difference is that Egbert’s emphasis on authentic tasks and audience is not present in Chapelle’s list.
The characteristics of learning activities are mainly defined by the type of tasks learners are engaged in. Doughty and Long (2003) used Task-Based Language Teaching theory to derive ten methodological principles, or language teaching universals, which may guide the design of ideal tasks.
It is generally believed that education is of vital importance in individual’s development and well-being of societies. What should education consist of to fulfill both these functions?With the rapid development of modern society, education is becoming more and more crucial to both individuals and societies. The issue over what education should consist of has considerably aroused people’s wide concern. In this essay, I seek to explore this complicated topic from diverse perspectives and what influence could be brought.Among the most important aspects education should consist of, one should be stressed is professional knowledge education. On one hand, under the fierce competitive circumstance, people who have professional skills and experience more opportunities companies. Therefore, study about one special area gives people more opportunities to hunt an ideal job. On the other hand, this education is also significant to develop societies in a long run.At the second place, what is also worth noticing is that physical education is necessary for students, especially for teenagers. If you want to achieve successfully in the modern societies, strong body is the first premise, which makes you always in shape. So education should push people to take care themselves and this could bring great benefits to the healthy society. Last but not least, we should not lose sight of psychological education. Psychological problem are serious nowadays and a sizable percentage of people suffer from them. A survey conducted by a famous research organization indicates that over 40 percent of students have various psychological problems, which really need help from school and society. Even worse, if such problems, cannot be solved, they could hamper the progress of well-being society.Judging from what I have been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that three aspects cannot be separated in education, which play vital important roles in the growth of individuals and societies. The fulfillment of both people and societies can be done as long as we lay emphasis on three aspects mentioned above.
Today is a new beginning